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Polymorphic G: G Mismatches Act as Hotspots for Inducing Right-handed Z DNA by DNA Intercalation
R. Satange, C.-Y. Chuang, S. Neidle, and M.-H. Hou*
DNA mismatches are highly polymorphic and dynamic in nature, albeit poorly characterized structurally. We utilized the antitumour antibiotic CoII(Chro)2 (Chro = chromomycin A3) to stabilize the palindromic duplex d(TTGGCGAA) DNA with two G:G mismatches, allowing X-ray crystallography-based monitoring of mismatch polymorphism. For the first time, the unusual geometry of several G:G mismatches including syn-syn, water mediated anti-syn and syn-syn-like conformations can be simultaneously observed in the crystal structure. The G:G mismatch sites of the d(TTGGCGAA) duplex can also act as a hotspot for the formation of alternative DNA structures with a GC/GA-5' intercalation site for binding by the GC-selective intercalator actinomycin D (ActiD). Direct intercalation of two ActiD molecules to G:G mismatch sites causes DNA rearrangements, resulting in backbone distortion to form right-handed Z-DNA structures with a single-step sharp kink. Our study provides insights on intercalators-mismatch DNA interactions and a rationale for mismatch interrogation and detection via DNA intercalation.