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Highly Efficient 2D/3D Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Low-pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process
M.-H. Li, H.-H. Yeh, Y.-H. Chiang, U.-S. Jeng, C.-J. Su, H.-W. Shiu, Y.-J. Hsu, N. Kosugi, T. Ohigashi, Y.-A. Chen, P.-S. Shen, P. Chen*, and T.-F. Guo*
The fabrication of multidimensional organometallic halide perovskite via a low‐pressure vapor‐assisted solution process is demonstrated for the first time. Phenyl ethyl‐ammonium iodide (PEAI)‐doped lead iodide (PbI2) is first spin‐coated onto the substrate and subsequently reacts with methyl‐ammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a low‐pressure heating oven. The doping ratio of PEAI in MAI‐vapor‐treated perovskite has significant impact on the crystalline structure, surface morphology, grain size, UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra, and the resultant device performance. Multiple photoluminescence spectra are observed in the perovskite film starting with high PEAI/PbI2 ratio, which suggests the coexistence of low‐dimensional perovskite (PEA2MAn−1PbnI3n+1) with various values of n after vapor reaction. The dimensionality of the as‐fabricated perovskite film reveals an evolution from 2D, hybrid 2D/3D to 3D structure when the doping level of PEAI/PbI2 ratio varies from 2 to 0. Scanning electron microscopy images and Kelvin probe force microscopy mapping show that the PEAI‐containing perovskite grain is presumably formed around the MAPbI3 perovskite grain to benefit MAPbI3 grain growth. The device employing perovskite with PEAI/PbI2 = 0.05 achieves a champion power conversion efficiency of 19.10% with an open‐circuit voltage of 1.08 V, a current density of 21.91 mA cm−2, and a remarkable fill factor of 80.36%.