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Incorporation of Cadmium and Nickel into Ferrite Spinel Solid Solution: X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Analyses


The feasibility of incorporating Cd and Ni in hematite was studied by investigating the interaction mechanism for the formation of CdxNi1-xFe2O4 solid solutions (CNFs) from CdO, NiO, and α-Fe2O3. X-ray diffraction results showed that the CNFs crystallized into spinel structures with increasing lattice parameters as the Cd content in the precursors was increased. Cd2+ ions were found to occupy the tetrahedral sites, as evidenced by Rietveld refinement and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses. The incorporation of Cd and Ni into ferrite spinel solid solution strongly relied on the processing parameters. The incorporation of Cd and Ni into the CNFs was greater at high x values (0.7 < x ≤ 1.0) than at low x values (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7). A feasible treatment technique based on the investigated mechanism of CNF formation was developed, involving thermal treatment of waste sludge containing Cd and Ni. Both of these metals in the waste sludge were successfully incorporated into a ferrite spinel solid solution, and the concentrations of leached Cd and Ni from this solid solution were substantially reduced, stabilizing at low levels. This research offers a highly promising approach for treating the Cd and Ni content frequently encountered in electronic waste and its treatment residues.

Environ. Sci. Technol. 52 , 775 (2018)