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3-dimensional; defects; elasticity modeling; femtosecond laser; Graphene; strain-engineering
Optical Forging of Graphene into Three-dimensional Shapes
A. Johansson, P. Myllyperkio, P. Koskinen, J. Aumanen, J. Koivistoinen, H.-C. Tsai, C.-H. Chen, L.-Y. Chang, V.-M. Hiltunen, J. J. Manninen, W. Y. Woon, and M. Pettersson*
Atomically thin materials, such as graphene, are the ultimate building blocks for nanoscale devices. But although their synthesis and handling today are routine, all efforts thus far have been restricted to flat natural geometries, since the means to control their three-dimensional (3D) morphology has remained elusive. Here we show that, just as a blacksmith uses a hammer to forge a metal sheet into 3D shapes, a pulsed laser beam can forge a graphene sheet into controlled 3D shapes in the nanoscale. The forging mechanism is based on laser-induced local expansion of graphene, as confirmed by computer simulations using thin sheet elasticity theory.