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Reducing Hysteresis and Enhancing Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Low-temperature Processed Y-Doped SnO2 Nanosheets as Electron Selective Layers
G. Yang, H. Lei, H. Tao, X. Zheng, J. Ma, Q. Liu, W. Ke, Z. Chen, L. Xiong, P. Qin, Z. Chen, M. Qin, X. Lu, Y. Yan*, and G. Fang*

2017/9/27

Despite the rapid increase of efficiency, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) still face some challenges, one of which is the current–voltage hysteresis. Herein, it is reported that yttrium-doped tin dioxide (Y-SnO2) electron selective layer (ESL) synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal growth process at 95 °C can significantly reduce the hysteresis and improve the performance of PSCs. Comparison studies reveal two main effects of Y doping of SnO2 ESLs: (1) it promotes the formation of well-aligned and more homogeneous distribution of SnO2 nanosheet arrays (NSAs), which allows better perovskite infiltration, better contacts of perovskite with SnO2 nanosheets, and improves electron transfer from perovskite to ESL; (2) it enlarges the band gap and upshifts the band energy levels, resulting in better energy level alignment with perovskite and reduced charge recombination at NSA/perovskite interfaces. As a result, PSCs using Y-SnO2 NSA ESLs exhibit much less hysteresis and better performance compared with the cells using pristine SnO2 NSA ESLs. The champion cell using Y-SnO2 NSA ESL achieves a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.29% (16.97%) when measured under reverse (forward) voltage scanning and a steady-state efficiency of 16.25%. The results suggest that low-temperature hydrothermal-synthesized Y-SnO2 NSA is a promising ESL for fabricating efficient and hysteresis-less PSC.

Small 13 , 1601769 (2017)